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The BeagleBone Black computer is feature rich.
This diagram identifies the resources and associated connectors.
BeagleBone Black with key components identified

What Does It Mean
DC Power
External 5 Volts DC/2A 'ac-adapter' if using more power than USB can provide (500mA)
Power Management Integrated Circuit - manages power for the BeagleBone
Sitara AM335x
The 1GHz ARM Cortex Computer
Serial Debug
Serial communication port to debug or control the BeagleBone
512MB DDR3
RAM Memory to load programs
Connect USB keyboard, mouse, thumbdrives, camera here
High Definition Media Interface - Output to your display monitor
Micro Secure Digital card slot - Used to install or run new Operating System
Boot Button
Press at power on to load from uSD (rather than built-in memory)
HDMI Framer
Circuit used to generate the video display image
enhance Memory Media Controller - 4GB solid state 'hard-disk' where programs and files are stored
Reset Button
Reset the Computer when pressed
Indicator LEDS - can be user programmed
USB Clients
Connects to another Host Computer for power and communication
Ethernet PHY
Circuits used to convert network signals to the computer
10/100 Ethernet
Connector for connection to the network and internet

LEDS What Do They Mean
USR0 Configured at boot to blink in a heartbeat pattern
USR1 Configured at boot to light during microSD card access
USR2 Configured at boot to light during CPU activity
USR3 Configured at boot time to light during eMMC accesses

BeagleBone Processor and Resources

Hardware Software
Processor : AM335x 1GHz ARM Cortex-A8 Sitara
Memory : 512MB DDR3 RAM
Storage : 4GB 8-bit eMMc flash storage
Video : 3D graphics accelerator
NEON floating-point accellerator
Embedded : 2cx PRU 32-bit microcontrollers 200MHz
USB client for power and communications
USB host
Ethernet 10/100Mb
HDMI: 1024x768, 1280x720,1440x900,1280x1024
2xx 46 pin headers
Operating System/Software
Angstrom Linux

Cloud9 IDE on Node.js w/BoneScript library

P8 P9 Input/Output pin Header

These connectors provide signals for installing accessory "Capes" or controlling devices and sensors.
BeagleBone P8 and P9 header pins identified

Getting Started

1) For the BeagleBone Information Page, enter the following address into your URL bar:
2) For the Cloud9/IDE Bonescript, enter the following address into your URL bar:
3) To TURN OFF the Computer -->  shutdown -h now

Getting Started: Angstrom (Linux)Desktop Environment

Access the Terminal in the following way: Applications > System Tools > Terminal
Access the File Browser in the menu tree here: Applications > System Tools > File Browser
You can find the Chromium Browser in the following location: Applications > Internet > Chromium (Web Browser)
BeagleBone Angstrom Desktop
This is the Angstrom Desktop display.

Additional Resources: